How to Do Affiliate Marketing: Stepwise Guide In 2023
1. Chose The Niche
When it comes to embarking on your affiliate marketing journey, choosing the right niche is of utmost importance. A niche refers to a specific segment of the population with shared interests or demographics. Let’s delve deeper into this topic and explore some examples to help you better understand the process.
- Imagine you have a passion for skincare and want to venture into affiliate marketing within that industry. Rather than targeting the broad market of skincare as a whole, you can narrow it down to a specific niche, such as skin care for kids. By doing so, you can tailor your content and promotions to cater specifically to parents and caregivers seeking skincare products for their little ones. This focused approach allows you to connect with your target audience more effectively and position yourself as an authority in the field of children’s skincare.
- Another example is the niche of anti-aging products. Instead of trying to cover all anti-aging solutions available, you could narrow down your focus to a specific sub-niche, like natural anti-aging remedies for mature skin. This allows you to target a specific demographic and cater to their unique needs and preferences. By honing in on this niche, you can establish yourself as a trusted resource for individuals seeking natural and effective anti-aging solutions.
To choose the right niche for your affiliate marketing endeavors, consider the following tips:
I. Follow your passions and interests:
- Select a niche that aligns with your interests and passions. This will make it easier for you to create engaging and informative content, as your enthusiasm will shine through in your work.
II. Assess competition:
- Research and analyze the level of competition in your chosen niche. If it’s already saturated with other marketers, consider ways to differentiate yourself. Offer a unique perspective or target a specific segment within the market to carve out your own space.
III. Evaluate market demand:
- Determine if there is a consistent demand for products or services within your chosen niche. Look for evergreen markets that experience steady customer demand throughout the year. Tools like Google Trends or Ubersuggest can assist you in gauging keyword popularity and identifying potentially profitable niches.
By finding a balance between your interests, market demand, and competition, you can select a niche that provides ample opportunities for success in the affiliate marketing world. Take the time to conduct thorough research and stay focused on your chosen niche, and you’ll increase your chances of building a sustainable income stream.
Remember, choosing the right niche is the foundation upon which your affiliate marketing business will thrive. So take the plunge, explore your options, and unlock the potential that awaits you in the exciting world of affiliate marketing!
2. Select A Platform
Once you have chosen your affiliate marketing niche, the next step is to determine the platform on which you will publish your content. There are two primary options: social media platforms and personal websites. Let’s explore these options further and provide examples to help you better understand the process.
I. Build an audience:
- Social media platforms offer a vast user base, making them an excellent choice for affiliate marketing. With over 4.62 billion regular users, social media provides a tremendous opportunity to engage with established communities, build an audience, and establish credibility.
- If you already have a significant following on a specific platform, it can be advantageous to leverage that existing audience.
II. Targeted Audience
- When selecting a social media platform, it is crucial to consider the demographics of your target audience.
- For instance, if you are targeting teenage girls in the beauty niche, TikTok might be the ideal platform as it has a large user base in the age group of 10 to 19 years old.
- On the other hand, if you are promoting career acceleration courses, LinkedIn might be a more suitable platform due to its focus on professional networking. For fashion or travel-related niches, Instagram is often the platform of choice.
III. Use of Visual
- Starting a YouTube channel can be particularly beneficial, especially if you are entering a highly competitive niche. Videos have been shown to increase lead generation by up to 66%, making YouTube a powerful platform to showcase your products and attract potential customers.
- However, keep in mind that creating high-quality videos requires time and resources, so be prepared to invest accordingly.
IV. Content Optimization
- As an affiliate marketer, utilizing multiple platforms can expand your opportunities to share affiliate links and generate leads. However, each platform requires a different optimization strategy. If you are new to affiliate marketing, it is advisable to start with a platform that you are already familiar with and focus on optimizing your content there.
- While social media platforms are excellent for building an audience and promoting affiliate products, having a separate website can add a professional touch to your brand and attract potential customers. Approximately 65% of affiliate marketers generate traffic through blogging. Blog posts provide more opportunities to naturally include affiliate links and optimize them for search engine results.
Ultimately, the platform you choose will depend on your niche, target audience, and marketing goals. Understanding your audience and their preferred platforms is crucial to increasing your chances of success in affiliate marketing. By utilizing multiple platforms and optimizing your content for each, you can expand your reach and generate more leads. However, keep in mind that each platform requires a unique approach and strategy, so invest time and effort into each one accordingly.
Take the time to assess your options, align them with your marketing goals, and make an informed decision on the platform(s) that will best serve your affiliate marketing endeavors.
3. Create A Landing Page
To establish a strong foundation for your affiliate marketing endeavors, creating a landing page or an affiliate site is crucial. This dedicated website serves as a central hub for all your affiliate marketing content, allowing you to effectively showcase promotional materials and increase your chances of earning commissions. Let’s delve deeper into the process of creating a landing page and provide examples to enhance your understanding.
I. Web Hosting and Domain Name
- The first step in creating an affiliate site is to secure web hosting. Web hosting is a service that enables you to store your website files and make them accessible on the internet. Shared hosting is an affordable and suitable option for affiliate marketers, as it does not require extensive technical knowledge.
- Additionally, you will need to choose a domain name, which is the address of your affiliate site. Selecting a unique yet simple name that reflects your brand and is memorable for visitors is essential.
II. Content Management Systems
- After acquiring web hosting and a domain name, the next step is to choose a website-building platform. Content management systems (CMS) like WordPress, as well as website builders, allow you to create a website from scratch without requiring coding knowledge.
- Website builders are ideal for users who want to quickly set up their websites without technical skills, while CMSs offer more flexibility and control over the site.
III. Themes and Plugins
- If you decide to use WordPress or other CMSs, it is important to select fast WordPress server hosting or hosting optimized for platforms like Joomla or Drupal. This ensures optimal performance for your website. Once you have chosen a platform, you can customize your site using themes and plugins. There are numerous free themes available for download in official directories.
- It is crucial to choose a theme that not only looks visually appealing but also loads quickly and is responsive to various devices. Installing the best WordPress plugins can enhance site performance, improve security, and streamline website management.
Creating an affiliate site requires careful planning and execution. With the right tools and resources, you can establish a successful platform for your affiliate marketing efforts. Consider the layout, design, and user experience of your landing page to ensure it effectively promotes your affiliate products or services. Implement strategies like compelling call-to-action buttons, engaging content, and clear navigation to drive conversions and maximize your earning potential.
Remember, your landing page is the gateway to your affiliate marketing business. Make it visually appealing, user-friendly, and optimized for performance. With a well-crafted landing page, you can attract visitors, build trust, and increase your chances of earning commissions through your affiliate marketing endeavors.
4. Sign-up for An Affiliate Program
- One way to find affiliate programs is to research brands within your niche and see if they offer affiliate programs that you can join. Alternatively, you can apply for an affiliate network to gain access to a variety of affiliate programs at once.
- When choosing an affiliate program, there are some key aspects to consider. First, pay attention to the cookie period. This is the length of time that a tracking cookie attached to your affiliate links will last, and it can range from one day to over 30 days. Programs with longer cookie periods provide more time to convince your audience to convert, which can increase your chances of earning commissions.
- Next, consider the commission structure. Some affiliate programs offer recurring commissions for subscription-based businesses, while others require you to generate a certain number of sales before receiving a payout. It’s also important to pay attention to commission rates, as they can vary depending on the type of product you’re promoting.
- low commission, high volume; high commission, low volume; and high commission, high volume. Low-commission, high-volume programs offer a wide range of mainstream affiliate products but require a lot of content and traffic to generate revenue. High-commission, low-volume programs offer luxury affiliate products and generate more revenue with fewer sales. Finally, high commission, high volume programs are highly competitive but offer high earning potential.
5. Write Quality and Catchy Content
Creating quality and catchy content is essential for success as an affiliate marketer. To effectively convert your audience into buying customers and build trust, it’s crucial to focus on engaging with them through valuable content. Let’s delve deeper into this topic and provide examples for better understanding.
I. Connect with the audience
- Merely inserting affiliate links randomly on your website or social media accounts won’t lead to conversions. Instead, you should aim to connect with your audience and provide them with content that addresses their queries or helps solve specific issues. By doing so, you can establish yourself as a reliable source of information and build credibility.
II. High-quality content
- High-quality content not only persuades your existing audience to make purchases but also improves your website’s performance in search results. Achieving a higher ranking increases organic traffic and attracts new visitors to your site, expanding your reach and potential customer base.
III. Relevant content
- To create relevant content, start by conducting keyword research to identify the problems and pain points of your target audience. By understanding the keywords they use to search for information, you can tailor your content to meet their needs. Focus on long-tail keywords that are specific and easier to rank for, especially when starting.
- Tools like Semrush or Google Keyword Planner can assist you in finding suitable keywords for your content. Additionally, combining evergreen topics with trend-driven subjects ensures brand relevancy throughout the year.
Here are some common types of content you can create for your affiliate site:
I. Product Reviews:
- Writing in-depth reviews about specific products is highly popular among affiliate marketers. Research shows that 90% of online buyers seek out product reviews before making a purchase. By providing comprehensive information, highlighting features, pros and cons, and your personal experience, you can help your audience make informed buying decisions.
II. Product Comparisons:
- Comparing two or more similar products allows your audience to evaluate their advantages and disadvantages side by side. This type of content helps potential buyers weigh their options and make educated choices.
III. Product Roundups:
- A product roundup article evaluates several products within the same category. By presenting multiple options, their key features, and recommendations, you make it easier for your audience to compare and choose the most suitable product for their needs.
- Creating tutorials that explain how a product or service works step by step can be highly effective. When customers understand the value and benefits of a product or service, they are more likely to make a purchase. Visual content, such as videos or infographics, can enhance the tutorial experience.
V. Resource Pages:
- Establish yourself as an expert in your field by creating resource pages that provide a curated list of tools, resources, and recommendations to help your audience solve their problems. This type of content showcases your expertise and positions you as a valuable resource.
- For subjects that require more in-depth coverage, consider creating eBooks. These can serve as lead magnets, offering valuable content to your audience in exchange for their email addresses. eBooks provide an opportunity to go into detail on specific topics that may not fit within a standard blog post.
Remember to include an affiliate disclosure on your site, clearly stating that you earn a commission from purchases made through your affiliate links. This disclosure ensures transparency and builds trust with your audience.
By consistently creating high-quality, relevant, and engaging content, you can effectively engage your audience and increase your chances of success as an affiliate marketer. Providing valuable information, addressing their needs, and building trust will ultimately lead to more conversions and long-term success in the affiliate marketing space.
6. Divert Traffic to Your Landing Page
Once you have established your affiliate marketing platform, the next crucial step is to drive traffic to your website. This is essential for generating leads, boosting conversions, and attracting potential customers. Let’s explore this topic further and provide explanations for better understanding.
To drive traffic to your site, it is necessary to develop an SEO (Search Engine Optimization) strategy. A higher ranking on search engines increases the visibility of your website, resulting in more organic traffic. Here are some key components of an effective SEO strategy:
I. Keyword Optimization:
- Research and identify relevant keywords that align with your niche and target audience’s search intent. Incorporate these keywords naturally into your content, including titles, headings, meta descriptions, and body text. This helps search engines understand the relevance of your content and improves its visibility in search results.
II. Link Building:
- Building quality backlinks from reputable websites is an important aspect of SEO. Seek opportunities to have your website mentioned or linked to by other authoritative sites in your industry. This not only drives direct traffic but also signals to search engines that your site is trustworthy and relevant.
III. Mobile-Friendly Website:
- Ensure that your website is optimized for mobile devices. With the increasing use of smartphones and tablets, having a responsive design that provides a seamless browsing experience across different devices is crucial for attracting and retaining visitors.
In addition to SEO, there are other methods to generate traffic to your affiliate site:
I. Start an Email Campaign:
- Email marketing allows you to directly communicate with your readers. By sending regular newsletters, you can inform your subscribers about new product recommendations, limited offers, and updates. Use a custom email address that contains your website name to enhance brand recognition and increase the chances of success.
II. Be Active on Social Media:
- Utilize social media platforms to build brand awareness and engage with your audience. Optimize your content with relevant hashtags to improve discoverability. Regularly interact with your followers, respond to their comments, and share valuable content to increase engagement and drive traffic to your site.
III. Participate in Online Forum Discussions:
- Engaging in online forums like Reddit and Quora provides an opportunity to connect with your target audience. While most forums do not allow direct affiliate link promotion, you can redirect interested individuals to relevant blog posts or affiliate landing pages on your website. Share valuable insights, answer questions, and establish yourself as an authority in your niche.
IV. Write Guest Posts:
- Reach out to websites within your niche and offer to write high-quality guest posts for them. This not only allows you to tap into an existing audience interested in the topic but also provides an opportunity to include relevant links back to your website. Guest posting can significantly increase your brand visibility and drive traffic to your site.
By implementing these strategies, you can effectively drive traffic to your affiliate website and increase the chances of generating leads and converting them into customers. It is crucial to regularly track your progress, analyze your data, and adjust your strategies accordingly to optimize your results. Consistency, adaptability, and continuous improvement are key to success in driving traffic to your affiliate marketing platform.
7. Link Clocking or Shorten
Link cloaking is an important step in optimizing your affiliate marketing strategy. It involves concealing the affiliate ID within a URL by redirecting it to another page. This technique helps prevent link hijacking, where malicious users replace your unique ID with theirs to steal commissions. Let’s delve deeper into link cloaking and provide examples for better understanding.
1. By cloaking affiliate links, you can enhance their visual appeal and user-friendliness. Instead of long and complex URLs filled with numbers and characters, you can create shorter, more memorable links. For instance, consider the following examples:
Original Affiliate Link:
Cloaked Affiliate Link:
In the cloaked link example, the original affiliate link is hidden behind a cleaner and more branded URL structure. This not only improves the link’s appearance but also makes it easier for users to remember and share.
2. Furthermore, link cloaking adds an element of trustworthiness. When users can see what to expect from a cloaked link, they are more likely to trust it and proceed with their purchase. This is particularly important in affiliate marketing, as building trust with your audience is essential for success.
WordPress plugins such as Pretty Links or Thirsty Affiliates can help you cloak your affiliate links. These tools allow you to create custom, branded URLs that redirect to your affiliate products. Here’s an example of how link cloaking works using Pretty Links:
Original Affiliate Link:
Cloaked Affiliate Link:
In this case, the cloaked link appears as a subdirectory on your website, making it more user-friendly and aligned with your brand. When users click on the cloaked link, they are redirected to the original affiliate URL behind the scenes.
By employing link cloaking, you can protect your affiliate links from link hijacking, improve user experience by creating visually appealing URLs, and increase brand recognition. This strategy enhances the security of your affiliate marketing efforts while boosting your chances of earning commissions and building trust with your audience.
8. Monitoring Your Marketing Campaign
Monitoring affiliate links is a crucial aspect of running a successful affiliate marketing campaign and maximizing revenue. It involves tracking the traffic and conversions of different pages, links, and visual elements to gain valuable insights and optimize your affiliate strategies. Let’s explore this topic further and provide examples for better understanding.
Various affiliate marketing tools are available to help track and analyze affiliate campaigns across different marketing channels. Here are a few examples:
I. Post Affiliate Pro:
This is a comprehensive affiliate tracking software that provides detailed analytics and reporting on your affiliate campaigns. It offers features like real-time tracking, commission management, and affiliate link tracking to monitor the performance of your affiliate links.
LinkTrack is a link-tracking tool that enables you to track and analyze the performance of your affiliate links. It provides valuable data on clicks, conversions, and other metrics, allowing you to measure the effectiveness of your affiliate marketing efforts.
Voluum is a powerful tracking platform that helps you monitor and optimize your affiliate campaigns. It offers advanced tracking capabilities, including conversion tracking, A/B testing, and traffic distribution, to help you maximize your campaign’s performance.
Additionally, free tools like Google Analytics and Google Tag Manager can be utilized to track affiliate links and gather valuable insights. By setting up goals and tracking events in Google Analytics, you can monitor the performance of your affiliate links and gain a deeper understanding of your audience’s behavior.
WordPress users can leverage affiliate plugins to simplify the monitoring process. For example:
This popular WordPress plugin integrates with Google Analytics, allowing you to track affiliate links directly from your WordPress dashboard. It provides detailed traffic volume data for individual product pages, giving you insights into which pages are driving the most affiliate clicks and conversions.
II. Pretty Links:
In addition to link cloaking, the Pretty Links plugin offers link-tracking functionality. It allows you to monitor the clicks and conversions of your cloaked affiliate links, giving you visibility into the performance of your campaigns.
By effectively monitoring affiliate links, you can gather data on the performance of different pages, links, and visual elements. This data enables you to identify successful strategies, optimize underperforming elements, and make data-driven decisions to improve your affiliate marketing efforts. With insights into what resonates with your audience, you can fine-tune your strategies for better results and maximize your revenue potential.
9. Increase Your Income
To maximize your income from affiliate marketing, continuous optimization of your marketing efforts is essential. This involves conducting tests and making adjustments to various elements of your content to identify strategies that drive more conversions and increase your affiliate income. Here are some examples to help you better understand the optimization process:
I. Headline Testing:
Create two different headlines for the same content and serve each headline to separate groups of traffic. By comparing their effectiveness in generating conversions, you can determine which headline is more successful. For instance, you can test variations like a descriptive headline versus a headline that highlights a specific benefit or a problem-solving approach.
Original Headline: “Discover the Best Tips for Healthy Cooking”
Variant Headline: “Learn How to Cook Delicious and Nutritious Meals in Minutes”
II. Image Testing:
Experiment with different high-quality images of the same product to identify which one leads to more conversions. This test allows you to understand which image resonates better with your audience and encourages them to take action. You can try variations in product angles, backgrounds, or the context in which the product is showcased.
Original Image: Product displayed against a plain background
Variant Image: Product displayed in a lifestyle setting with a model using the product
III. Comparison Tables:
Adding product comparison tables to your content, such as in product reviews or comparisons, can be an effective strategy. These tables highlight the features, prices, and other relevant information of different products side by side, making it easier for your audience to make informed purchasing decisions.
Create a table comparing features, prices, and user ratings of different smartphones in a technology review article.
IV. Optimizing Calls to Action (CTAs):
Pay attention to your CTAs as they play a crucial role in driving conversions. Keep your CTAs concise, personalized, and action-oriented. Including time-related words like “Shop Now,” “Limited Time Offer,” or “Last Chance” can create a sense of urgency that encourages visitors to take immediate action. Pairing CTAs with a countdown timer can further enhance the urgency factor.
Original CTA: “Buy Now”
Optimized CTA: “Shop Now – Limited Stock Available”
V. Exit Intent Pop-ups:
Consider using exit intent pop-ups as a last-ditch effort to convince visitors who are about to leave your site without taking any action. These pop-ups can offer special discounts, incentives, or additional content to encourage visitors to reconsider their decision. WordPress plugins like OptinMonster can help you implement exit intent pop-ups effectively.
An exit intent pop-up offering a 10% discount code for first-time customers or a free downloadable guide related to the content they were browsing.
By continuously optimizing your marketing efforts and experimenting with different elements like headlines, images, CTAs, and pop-ups, you can identify the strategies that work best for your audience. Remember to track the results of each test and make data-driven decisions to increase your affiliate income and achieve success in your affiliate marketing career.
How Affiliate Marketing Works
As an affiliate marketer, your main objective is to persuade your audience to take specific actions, such as making a purchase or filling out a form. To accomplish this, you need to incorporate affiliate links into your website, blog, or social media posts. These links contain tracking cookies that enable affiliate networks to identify the source of a sale. When a customer clicks on an affiliate link and completes a purchase, the sale is attributed to the corresponding affiliate, who then earns a commission.
Strategic placement of affiliate links and ensuring easy accessibility for your audience are crucial factors in maximizing your revenue potential. Here are a few examples to help you understand how to effectively incorporate affiliate links:
I. Contextual Integration:
Integrate affiliate links naturally within your content to make them relevant and useful to your audience. For example, if you’re writing a blog post about the best skin care products, you can include affiliate links to the recommended products within the text.
“Are you struggling with dry skin? Check out this amazing moisturizer that has transformed my skin. [Affiliate link]”
II. Call-to-Action Buttons:
Utilize call-to-action (CTA) buttons to draw attention to your affiliate links and encourage click-throughs. These buttons can be placed strategically within your content or as standalone elements, prompting your audience to take immediate action.
“Get Your Exclusive Discount Now! [CTA button with affiliate link]”
III. Product Reviews and Recommendations:
Write detailed product reviews or recommendations and include affiliate links within the content. This allows your audience to make informed purchasing decisions while providing an opportunity for you to earn commissions.
“I’ve tested and reviewed the top fitness trackers on the market. Check out my in-depth analysis and find the perfect one for your needs. [Affiliate links to each recommended product]”
IV. Social Media Promotions:
Use affiliate links in your social media posts to drive traffic and conversions. Craft engaging captions that highlight the benefits of the product or service you’re promoting and include a clear call to action.
“Looking for the best deals on home decor? Don’t miss out on these exclusive discounts! [Affiliate link] #homedecor #sale”
Remember to disclose your affiliate relationships transparently, following relevant regulations and guidelines. This builds trust with your audience and ensures compliance with ethical standards.
By strategically placing affiliate links within your content and making them easily accessible to your audience, you can increase the chances of generating revenue through affiliate marketing. Always prioritize providing value to your audience and aligning the promoted products or services with their interests and needs.
Types of Affiliate Marketing
Affiliate marketing can be categorized into three types based on the level of association with the product being promoted. Let’s explore each type further with examples for better understanding:
I. Unattached Affiliate Marketing:
In unattached affiliate marketing, affiliates display the merchant’s advertisements on their website or other platforms without having any direct connection or personal experience with the product. They act as intermediaries, simply promoting the product or service without providing personal insights or recommendations.
Example: A general coupon website that displays various discount offers from different merchants without providing detailed information or personal experiences about the products.
II. Expert Affiliate Marketing:
Expert affiliate marketing involves affiliates who have a close association with the product and are considered experts or influencers within their niche. They possess in-depth knowledge and personal experiences with the products they promote, allowing them to provide valuable insights, recommendations, and detailed reviews to their audience.
Example: A fitness blogger who shares their fitness journey and recommends specific workout equipment, supplements, and fitness programs based on their own experiences and expertise.
III. Authority Affiliate Marketing:
Authority affiliate marketing combines elements of both unattached and expert affiliate marketing. Affiliates in this category promote relevant products or services without directly claiming personal experience with them. However, they are seen as trusted sources of information due to their authority and expertise within their niche. They provide valuable content, comparisons, and recommendations to their audience, even if they haven’t personally used every product they promote.
Example: A technology website that provides comprehensive reviews, comparisons, and recommendations for various gadgets, even if the author hasn’t personally tested each device.
It’s important to note that these types of affiliate marketing are not mutually exclusive, and many affiliates may incorporate elements from multiple types depending on their approach and niche. The key is to understand the level of association and the type of information being provided to the audience, as it can influence their trust and engagement with the affiliate’s recommendations.
- In pay-per-sale, affiliates earn a percentage of the product price for every purchase made using their unique affiliate link.
- Pay-per-lead pays the affiliate based on lead conversion, such as when a potential customer creates a trial account or subscribes to a newsletter.
- Pay-per-click calculates commissions based on the amount of traffic brought to the merchant’s site, with affiliates earning more as users click on their affiliate link more frequently.
Earning from Affiliate Marketing
- On average, affiliate marketers can earn about $53,000 per year. However, there is a wide range of earnings, with some earning as little as $39,000 per year, and others earning as much as $73,000 per year. Some of the most successful affiliate marketers, such as Pat Flynn, have even higher earnings. Pat Flynn’s net worth, as the founder of the popular online marketing blog Smart Passive Income, is estimated to be over $3 million.
Best Affiliate Program for Beginners
- Amazon Associates: As a globally recognized brand with a wide range of products to promote, the Amazon Affiliate Program is an excellent option for new affiliate marketers starting their journey. With over 365 million products available to promote, you’ll have plenty of options to choose from.
- ClickBank: One of the oldest affiliate networks, ClickBank specializes in digital products, making it an ideal platform for marketers looking to advertise digital affiliate products.
- CJ: Formerly known as Commission Junction, CJ provides access to detailed affiliate program metrics to help affiliates map out which programs to join and estimate their earning potential accordingly.
- Impact: Impact is suitable for any affiliate looking to kickstart their career, as it lists brands that offer instant approval. It provides a straightforward platform to manage affiliate partnerships and offers access to a wide range of brands and products to promote.
Mistake to Avoid
- Lacking product knowledge can make it difficult to promote products and services effectively.
- Neglecting site performance and SEO can make it challenging to attract traffic to your website, resulting in lower conversions.
- Producing low-quality content can turn off your audience, affecting your reputation and credibility.
- Depending on only one affiliate program may limit your earning potential.
- It’s also crucial not to underestimate the audience’s trust by promoting products that aren’t relevant or of low quality.